Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien]
  • Thrombophlebitis

    What is deep vein thrombosis?

    Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien Deep Vein Thrombosis | DVT | MedlinePlus

    Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien Thrombosis | definition of thrombosis by Medical dictionary

    May 15, Author: See Etiology and Workup. Although superficial thrombophlebitis usually occurs in the lower extremities, it also has been described in the penis and the breast Mondor disease. Superficial thrombophlebitis can also develop anywhere that medical interventions occur, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, such as in the arm or neck external jugular vein when intravenous IV catheters are used.

    See Etiology, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, Presentation, and Workup. Thrombosis and thrombophlebitis of the superficial venous system receive little attention in medical and surgical textbooks. However, thrombophlebitis is encountered frequently and, although it is usually a benign, self-limiting disease, it can be recurrent and tenaciously persistent, at times causing significant incapacitation, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    See Epidemiology and Prognosis. When affecting the great saphenous vein also referred to as the greater or long saphenous veinthrombophlebitis will sometimes progress into the deep venous system. Damage to deep venous valves leads to chronic deep venous insufficiency often referred to as postphlebitic syndromeas well as to recurrent pulmonary embolism PE and an increased risk of death.

    Superficial thrombophlebitis can occur spontaneously, especially in the lower extremities in the great saphenous vein, or as a complication of medical or surgical interventions. Although the etiology is frequently obscure, superficial venous thrombosis is most often associated with one of the Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien of the Virchow triad; ie, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, intimal damage which can result from trauma, infection, or inflammationstasis or turbulent flow, or changes in blood constituents presumably causing increased coagulability.

    In each type of superficial thrombophlebitis, the condition presents as redness and tenderness along the course of the vein, usually accompanied by swelling. Bleeding also can occur at the site of a varicose vein. Although unusual, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, superficial thrombophlebitis may occur in the lesser saphenous vein, which empties into the popliteal vein.

    Superficial thrombophlebitis can also occur in the external jugular vein, if it has been used for an infusion site. Superficial thrombophlebitis of the upper extremities usually occurs at infusion sites or sites of trauma. Superficial thrombophlebitis is a clinical diagnosis in which the clinician identifies tender and inflamed superficial veins. However, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, ruling out DVT in the clinical setting is difficult; further testing is often required to evaluate for this condition.

    See Presentation and Workup. Treatment for superficial thrombophlebitis is aimed at patient comfort and at preventing superficial phlebitis from involving the deep veins, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. See Treatment and Medication. Superficial phlebitis with infection, such as phlebitis originating at an IV catheter site, is referred to as septic thrombophlebitisa clinical entity requiring diagnostic and therapeutic approaches that are different from those applied to sterile phlebitis.

    Microscopic thrombosis is a normal part of the dynamic balance of hemostasis. InThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, the German pathologist Virchow recognized that if this dynamic balance were altered by venous stasis or turbulence, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, abnormal coagulability, or vessel wall injuries, then microthrombi could propagate to form macroscopic thrombi.

    In the absence of a triggering event, neither venous stasis nor abnormal coagulability alone causes clinically important thrombosis, but vascular endothelial injury does reliably result in Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien formation. The initiating injury triggers an inflammatory response that results in immediate platelet adhesion at the injury site, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Further platelet aggregation is mediated by thromboxane A2 TxA2 and by thrombin. A more detailed visual of the coagulation pathway can be seen in the image below. Platelet aggregation due to Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien is inhibited irreversibly by aspirin and reversibly by other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs ; thrombin-mediated platelet aggregation, on the other hand, is not affected by NSAIDs, including aspirin. This is why aspirin and other NSAIDs are somewhat effective in preventing arterial thrombosis, where platelet aggregation is mediated via TxA2, as seen in patients with stroke and myocardial infarction, but are not very effective in preventing venous thrombophlebitis, where it is believed that clot formation is more of a result of thrombin activation.

    The most important clinically identifiable risk factors for thrombophlebitis are a prior history of superficial phlebitis, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, and PE, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Some common risk markers include recent surgery or wie man Krampfadern heilen vollständig, prolonged immobilization, and underlying malignancy.

    Phlebitis also occurs in diseases associated with vasculitis, such as polyarteritis nodosa periarteritis nodosa and Buerger disease thromboangiitis obliterans.

    The increased likelihood of developing thrombophlebitis occurs through most of pregnancy and for approximately 6 weeks after delivery. This is partly due to increased platelet stickiness and Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien due to reduced fibrinolytic flebodia Bewertungen für Krampfadern Beine. The association between pregnancy and thrombophlebitis is of particular concern to women who carry the factor V Leiden or prothrombin Ca gene, because they already have a predisposition to clotting, which would also be exacerbated by pregnancy.

    High-dose estrogen therapy is another risk factor. Case-controlled and cohort studies based on clinical signs and symptoms of Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien suggest that by taking high-estrogen oral contraceptives, a woman may increase her risk of thrombosis by a factor of times, though the absolute risk remains low. Newer low-dose oral contraceptives are associated with a much lower risk of thrombophlebitis, though the absolute risk has not been well quantified, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Superficial venous thrombosis following an injury usually occurs in an extremity, manifesting as a tender cord along kalte Dusche von Krampfadern course of a vein juxtaposing the area of trauma, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Ecchymosis may be present early in Vorbereitungen Vorbeugung von Krampfadern disease, indicating extravasation of blood associated with injury to the vein; this may turn to brownish pigmentation over the vein as the inflammation resolves.

    Thrombophlebitis frequently occurs at the site of an IV infusion and is the result Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien irritating drugs, hypertonic solutions, or the intraluminal catheter or cannula itself. This is by far the most common type of thrombophlebitis encountered. Usually, redness and pain signal its presence while the infusion is being given, but thrombosis may manifest as a small lump days or weeks after the infusion apparatus has been removed. It may take months to completely resolve.

    The features of iatrogenic form of traumatic chemical phlebitis may be deliberately wenn es Krampfadern an den Beinen by sclerotherapy during the treatment of varicose veins. Superficial thrombophlebitis frequently occurs in varicose veins.

    It may extend up and down the saphenous vein or may remain confined to a cluster of tributary varicosities away from the Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien saphenous vein. Although thrombophlebitis may follow trauma to a varix, it often occurs in varicose veins without an antecedent cause.

    Thrombophlebitis in a varicose vein develops as a tender, hard knot and is frequently surrounded by erythema. At times, bleeding may occur as the reaction extends through the vein wall. It frequently is observed in varicose veins surrounding venous stasis ulcers. Superficial thrombophlebitis along the course of the great saphenous vein is observed more often to progress to the deep system. Infection-related thrombophlebitis is associated with several different conditions, including a serious complication of intravascular cannulation and can be suspected in patients who have persistent bacteremia in the setting of appropriate antibiotic therapy.

    It also frequently is associated with septicemia. InDeTakats suggested that dormant infection in varicose veins was a factor in the development of thrombophlebitis occurring following operations or after injection treatments, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, trauma, or exposure to radiation therapy.

    Altemeier et al suggested that the presence of L-forms Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien other atypical bacterial forms in the blood may play an important etiologic Nicht-traditionelle Methoden der Behandlung von Krampfadern in the disease and recommended administration of tetracycline. Jadioux described migratory Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien indetermining it to be an entity characterized by repeated thromboses developing in superficial veins at varying sites but occurring most commonly in the lower extremity.

    Although numerous etiologic factors have been proposed for this condition, none have been confirmed. The association of carcinoma with migratory thrombophlebitis was first reported by Trousseau, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, in Sproul noted migratory thrombophlebitis to be especially prevalent with carcinoma of the tail of the pancreas. Mondor disease Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien a rare condition.

    Thrombophlebitis is usually located in the anterolateral aspect of the upper portion of the breast or in the region extending from the lower portion of the breast across the submammary fold toward the costal margin and the epigastrium. A characteristic finding is a tender, cordlike structure that may be best demonstrated by tensing the skin via elevation of the arm. The cause of Mondor disease Ausbildung nach Krampfadern unknown, but a search for malignancy is indicated.

    Mondor disease is more likely to occur after breast surgery, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, with the use of oral contraceptives, and Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien protein C deficiency.

    Thrombophlebitis of the dorsal vein of the penis, generally caused by trauma or repetitive injury, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, is also referred to as Mondor disease. In the author's experience, superficial thrombophlebitis most frequently occurs in the age group ranging from young adulthood to middle age.

    However, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, Markovic et al reported that a common risk factor is age older than 60 years, though fewer complications Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien in prick Varizen age group. As previously mentioned, pregnancy, puerperium, and high-dose estrogen therapy are recognized risk factors for Wang und Thrombophlebitis. However, there are no intrinsic, sex-linked risks for the disease.

    The prognosis in superficial thrombophlebitis is usually good. Superficial phlebitis is rarely associated with PE, although it can occur, particularly if the process extends into a deep vein. However, individuals with superficial venous thrombosis do not seem to have a great tendency to develop DVT.

    In contrast, patients with DVT are frequently found to have superficial venous thrombosis. The patient should be told to expect the disease process to persist for weeks or longer. If it occurs in the lower extremity in association with varicose veins, it has a high likelihood of recurrence unless excision is performed, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Because thrombophlebitis tends to recur if the vein has not been excised, instructing the patient in ways to prevent stasis in the vein is usually advisable.

    The use of elastic stockings may be indicated, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, especially if the patient plans to stand in an upright position for long periods, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Slight elevation of Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien foot of the bed, avoidance of long periods of standing in an trophischen Geschwüren bei Hunden Behandlung position, and avoidance of prolonged inactivity is recommended.

    An unexpectedly high rate of pulmonary embolism in patients with superficial thrombophlebitis of the thigh. The veins in thromboangiitis obliterans: With particular reference to Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien anastomosis as a cure for the condition. Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, Diagnosis and Treatment. University of Nagoya Press; Krampfadern Behandlung Ulyanovsk Pract Res Clin Rheumatol.

    Vasculopathy related to cocaine adulterated with levamisole: A review of the literature. Oral contraceptives, hormone replacement therapy and thrombosis. Skin necrosis and venous thrombosis from subcutaneous injection of charcoal lighter fluid naptha. Am J Emerg Med. Clinical practice guidelines for the diagnosis and management of intravascular catheter-related infection: Am J Med Sci. Acute and recurrent thromboembolic disease: Carcinoma and venous thrombosis: Frequency of association of carcinoma in body or tail of pancreas with multiple venous thrombosis.

    Nazir SS, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, Khan M. Thrombosis of the dorsal vein of the penis Mondor's Disease:

    Thrombophlebitis - Wikipedia Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien

    Thrombosis is the formation of a blood clot inside a blood vesselobstructing the flow of blood through the circulatory system. When a blood vessel is injured, the body uses platelets thrombocytes and Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien to form a blood clot to prevent blood loss, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Even when a blood vessel is not injured, blood clots may form in the body under certain conditions. A clot, or a piece of the clot, that breaks free and begins to travel around the body is known as an embolus.

    Thrombosis may occur in veins venous thrombosis or in arteries. Venous thrombosis leads to congestion of the affected Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien of the body, while arterial thrombosis and rarely severe venous thrombosis Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien the blood supply and leads to damage of the tissue supplied by that artery ischemia and necrosis.

    A piece of either an arterial or a venous thrombus can break off as an embolus which can travel through the circulation and lodge somewhere else as an embolism. This type of embolism is known as a thromboembolism.

    Complications can arise when a venous thromboembolism commonly called a VTE lodges in the lung as a pulmonary embolism, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. An arterial embolus may travel further down the affected blood vessel where it can lodge as an embolism. Thrombosis is generally defined by the type of blood vessel affected arterial or venous thrombosis Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien the precise location of the blood vessel or the organ supplied by it.

    Deep vein thrombosis DVT is the formation of a blood clot within a deep vein. It most commonly affects leg veins, such as the femoral vein. Three factors are important in the Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien of a blood clot within a deep vein—these are the rate of blood flow, the thickness of the blood and qualities of the vessel wall.

    Classical signs of DVT include swellingThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien and redness of the affected area. Paget-Schroetter disease is the obstruction of an upper extremity vein such as the axillary vein or subclavian vein by a thrombus, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. The condition usually comes to light after vigorous exercise and usually presents in younger, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, otherwise healthy people.

    Men are affected more than women, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Budd-Chiari syndrome is the blockage of a hepatic vein or of the hepatic part of the inferior vena cava.

    This form of thrombosis presents with abdominal painascites and enlarged liver. Treatment varies between therapy and surgical intervention by the use of shunts.

    Portal vein thrombosis affects the hepatic portal veinwhich can lead to portal hypertension and reduction of the blood supply to the liver. Renal vein thrombosis is the obstruction of the renal vein by a thrombus. This tends to lead to reduced drainage from the kidney. Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis CVST is a rare form of stroke which results from the blockage of the dural venous sinuses by a thrombus.

    Symptoms may include headacheabnormal vision, any of the symptoms of stroke such as weakness of the face and limbs on one side of the body and seizures. The majority of persons affected make a full recovery. The mortality rate is 4. Jugular vein thrombosis is a condition that may occur due to infection, intravenous drug use or malignancy. Jugular vein thrombosis can have a varying list of complications, including: Though Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien by a sharp pain at the site of the vein, it can prove difficult to diagnose, because it can occur at random.

    Cavernous sinus thrombosis is a specialised form of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis, where there is thrombosis of the cavernous sinus of the basal skull dura, due to the retrograde spread of infection and endothelial damage from the danger triangle of the face. The facial veins in this area anastomose with the superior and inferior ophthalmic veins of the orbit, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, which drain directly posteriorly into Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien cavernous sinus through the superior orbital fissure, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Staphyloccoal or Streptococcal infections of the face, for example nasal or upper lip pustules may thus spread directly into the cavernous sinus, causing stroke-like symptoms of double visionsquintThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, as well as spread of infection to cause meningitis. Arterial Heilung für schwere Krampfadern is the formation of a thrombus within an artery.

    In most cases, arterial thrombosis follows rupture of atheroma a fat-rich deposit in the blood vessel walland is therefore referred to as atherothrombosis. Arterial embolism occurs when clots then migrate downstream, and can affect any organ. Alternatively, arterial occlusion occurs as a consequence of embolism of blood clots originating from the heart "cardiogenic" emboli, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    The most common cause is atrial fibrillationwhich causes a blood stasis within the atria with easy thrombus formation, but blood clots can develop inside Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien heart for other Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien too. A stroke is the rapid decline of brain function due to a disturbance in the supply of blood to the Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. This can be due to ischemiathrombus, embolus a lodged particle or hemorrhage a bleed, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    In thrombotic stroke, a thrombus blood clot usually forms around atherosclerotic plaques. Since blockage of the artery is gradual, onset of symptomatic thrombotic strokes is slower. Thrombotic stroke can be divided into two categories—large vessel disease and small vessel disease. The former affects vessels such as the internal Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolienvertebral and the circle of Willis. The latter can affect smaller vessels such as the branches of the circle of Willis.

    Myocardial infarction MI or heart attack, is caused by ischemia, restriction in the blood supplyThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, often due to the obstruction of a coronary artery by a thrombus. This restriction gives an insufficient supply of oxygen to the heart muscle which then results in tissue death, infarction.

    A lesion is then formed which is the infarct. MI can quickly become schmerzende Beine nach der Operation von Krampfadern if emergency medical treatment is not received promptly.

    If diagnosed within 12 hours of the initial episode attack then thrombolytic therapy is initiated, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    An arterial thrombus or embolus can also form in the limbs, which can lead to acute limb ischemia. Hepatic artery thrombosis usually occurs as a Übungen, die gegen Krampfadern complication after liver transplantation.

    Thrombosis prevention is initiated with assessing the risk for its development. Some people have a higher risk of developing thrombosis and its possible development into thromboembolism, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. The main causes of thrombosis are given in Virchow's triad which lists thrombophiliaendothelial cell injury, and disturbed blood flow. Hypercoagulability or thrombophiliais caused by, for Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, genetic deficiencies or autoimmune disorders.

    Recent studies indicate that white blood cells play a pivotal role in deep vein thrombosis, mediating numerous pro-thrombotic actions. Any inflammatory process, such as trauma, surgery or infection, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, can cause damage to the endothelial lining of the vessel's wall. The main mechanism is exposure of tissue factor to the blood coagulation system. Endothelial injury is almost invariably involved in the formation of thrombi in arteries, as high rates of blood flow normally hinder clot formation.

    In addition, arterial and cardiac clots are normally rich in platelets—which are required for clot formation in areas under high stress due to blood flow. Causes of disturbed blood flow include stagnation of blood flow mildronat für Krampfadern the point of injury, or venous stasis which may occur in heart failureThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, [19] or after long periods of sedentary behaviour, such as sitting on a long airplane flight.

    Also, atrial fibrillationcauses stagnant blood in the left atrium LAor left atrial appendage LAAThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, and can lead to a thromboembolism, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien. Fibrinolysis is the physiological breakdown of blood clots by enzymes such as plasmin.

    For an occlusive thrombus defined as thrombosis within a small vessel that leads to complete occlusionwound healing will reorganise the occlusive thrombus into Krampfadern rechten Extremität Anamnese scar tissue, where the scar tissue will either permanently obstruct the vessel, or Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien down with myofibroblastic activity to unblock the lumen, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    For Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien mural thrombus defined as a thrombus in a large vessel that restricts the blood flow but does not occlude completelyhistological reorganisation of the thrombus does not occur via the classic wound healing mechanism. Instead, the platelet-derived growth factor degranulated by the clotted platelets will attract a layer of smooth muscle cells to cover the clot, and this layer of mural smooth muscle will be vascularised by the blood inside the vessel lumen rather than by the vasa vasorum, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    A venous thrombus may or may not be ischaemic, since veins distribute deoxygenated blood that is less vital for cellular metabolism. Nevertheless, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, non-ischaemic venous thrombosis may still be problematic, due to the swelling caused by blockage to venous drainage. In deep vein thrombosis this manifests as pain, redness, and swelling; in retinal vein occlusion this may result in macular oedema and visual acuity impairment, which if severe enough can Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien to blindness.

    A thrombus may become detached and enter Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien as an embolusfinally lodging in and completely obstructing a blood vessel, which unless treated very quickly will lead to tissue necrosis an infarction in the area past the occlusion.

    Venous thrombosis can lead to pulmonary embolism when the migrated embolus becomes lodged in the lung. In people with a "shunt" Kinder Krampfadern Behandlung connection between the pulmonary and systemic circulationThrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, either in the heart or in the lung, a venous clot can also end up in the arteries and cause arterial embolism.

    Arterial embolism can lead to obstruction of blood flow through the blood vessel that is obstructed by it, and lack of oxygen and nutrients ischemia of the downstream tissue. The tissue can become irreversibly damaged, a process known as necrosis.

    This can affect any organ; for instance, arterial embolism of the brain is one of the cause of stroke. The use of heparin following surgery is common if there are no issues with bleeding. Generally, a risk-benefit analysis is required, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, as all anticoagulants lead to an increased risk of bleeding.

    In patients admitted for surgery, graded compression stockings are widely used, and in severe illness, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, prolonged immobility and in all orthopedic surgeryprofessional guidelines recommend low molecular weight heparin LMWH administration, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, mechanical calf compression or if all else is contraindicated and the patient has recently suffered deep vein thrombosis the insertion of a vena cava filter, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    The treatment for thrombosis depends on whether it is in a vein or an artery, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, the impact on the person, and the risk of complications from treatment. Warfarin and vitamin K antagonists are anticoagulants that can be taken orally to reduce thromboembolic occurrence. Where a more effective response is required, heparin can be given by injection concomitantly. As a side effect of any anticoagulant, the risk of bleeding is increased, so the international normalized ratio of blood is monitored.

    Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien and self-management are safe options for competent patients, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien, though their practice varies. Thrombolysis is the pharmacological Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien of blood clots by administering Varizen frühzeitige Behandlung drugs including recombitant tissue plasminogen activatorwhich enhances the normal destruction of blood clots by the body's enzymes.

    This carries an increased risk of bleeding so is generally only used for specific situations such as severe stroke or a massive pulmonary embolism. Arterial thrombosis may require surgery if it causes acute limb ischemia, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Mechanical clot retrieval and catheter-guided thrombolysis are used in certain situations. Arterial thrombosis is platelet-rich, and inhibition of platelet aggregation with antiplatelet drugs such as aspirin may reduce the risk of recurrence or progression, Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Thrombosis Cyanosis of the lower right extremity, resulting Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien acute arterial thrombosis of the right leg on the left side of the image Specialty Vascular surgeryinternal medicinepulmonology Symptoms Depend on location [ edit on Wikidata ], Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien.

    Cerebral venous sinus thrombosis. New England Journal of Medicine. Harrison's Principles of Thrombophlebitis Thromboembolien Medicine 16th ed. American Journal of Transplantation. Robbins and Cotran Pathologic Basis of Disease. Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets. Cardiovascular disease vessels I70—I99—

    How superficial thrombophlebitis develops

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